Essential Components of a Heroic Tier town

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I've been working on the town that will be the base for the campaign I plan to run in 4e. The town sits astride a river and is divided between the more affluent half and the commoner half in terms of housing. Additionally the town protects/rules two smaller villages less than 1/2 a day away. One village is mainly a farming/ranching population and the other (situated on the edge of a nearby forest) provides lumber and has many hunters.

So with that in mind, I am trying to come up with an essential list of the things I need to place in the town. I have the following:

Town Hall
Guard Tower/HQ
Blacksmith
3 inn/taverns (low, medium, and high quality)
Temple (one joint temple to the dieties worshipped in the town)
market square (stalls and shops for just about eveything)
fish/meat market (near the docks on the river)

So far I have a lot of empty space left. I'd like to get an idea of what I may be missing that would be needed to make this a prime base for the PCs.

Any ideas?
Shadow Network DM
A graveyard.
It's a large town, so why not a large graveyard dating back to times where it was a more affluent town, so a few large crypts. There's always fun stuff in crypts.. once you get past the undead, the traps, the curses.. wait.. those are the fun things.

Ruins

Similar to the above having ruins maybe on the edge of town, or a half days ride away maybe the city was built upon another, whatever. But a ruined section of city/ancient city can be fun to adventure in.

A Tower Without A Door.

A TWAD, is always fun. It can lead to other things later on, but at the beginning it will drive the players nuts because they'll keep thinking that its important and want to get in right away, but they won't be able to. At least not till later or it could be there just to mess with them and they'll never get in.

A landlocked galleon

How did it get there? How do you get in? Is there anything left in the hold? What about the spirits of the sailors that come out every so many years and wreak havoc?

Hopefully some of those catch your interest.
So with that in mind, I am trying to come up with an essential list of the things I need to place in the town. I have the following:

Town Hall
Guard Tower/HQ
Blacksmith
3 inn/taverns (low, medium, and high quality)
Temple (one joint temple to the dieties worshipped in the town)
market square (stalls and shops for just about eveything)
fish/meat market (near the docks on the river)

So far I have a lot of empty space left. I'd like to get an idea of what I may be missing that would be needed to make this a prime base for the PCs.

Any ideas?

Here are some background stuff that helps to give the feel of a realistic and balanced economy.

Farmers. Mostly nameless cardboard stock characters. But unless your world has some high powered food source, the best you can hope for 75% of the population being farmers or some other direct food production. And 90% is more realistic.

Mills, wind or preferably water. One or two grain grinding mills and possibly one or two for some other craft. Millers tend to be well off and hated because they make their money skimming a percent of what goes through the mill and are well placed to skim a bit extra.

Local Industry. Wood workers, weavers, tailors, tanners, and shoemakers are all common enough that any substantial town probably has at least one. Shipwright and sail makers at any town with a substantial dock. A horse dealer if they are common in the area. A couple of scribes to read and write letters and draft legal documents. If it's a big town, a weapon smith, armor smith and fletcher will see enough business even without the PCs.

Tax collectors. All but the smallest of towns will have somebody assigned to this job. They will be well off and throughly hated, no matter how honest they might be. And very few where what we would call honest.

Now for the stuff that is more likely to directly trigger an adventure.

Industry. What do they make and sell here. I'm thinking of what they package up and ship to other towns and cities. Industry problems are very common basis for starter adventures.

Merchants. Are any based in town? If so then they need a house with space for goods. A successful merchant, particularly in town that trades by water, will also have a warehouse. Where do these merchants go and what do they trade?

Multiple temples. This of course depends on how your deities and religions are organized. But in a place where there are multiple religions there will probably be multiple shrines/temples. You probably need something on the order of 500 people to support a full time priest, but part time priests that also farmed where common in the countryside during much of the middle ages.

Local nobility. Who rules, and how do they rule? Even if the town has a mayor, it is probably part of somebodies domain. And in many cases, substantial towns and cities had a noble lord assigned to keep order and see that taxes where collected even if the mayor took care of day to day business. Depending on your world, there may also be some knights living in the town, either as a home or as an assignment. Plus there could be noble families living in the town that have no domain, but still have enough money and power to be interesting.

Non-local nobility. Powerful nobles often had estates and townhouses in places they visited on a regular basis. Such powerful nobility need not even be in town to have a significant impact.

Other Classed characters. If it's a big town or city you don't need to list them all, but you need to know who the powerful ones are.

Criminals. What sort are found in the town, and how good are they?

Judges. How is the justice system handled, who arrests, who tries and how honest is the court? Full time lawyers are rare, but they can be found in large towns and cities.

Jay
Thanks for the input thus far. I may actually go with the Tower Without A Door.

As for the rest, what I'm really looking for is to fill in the map of the town with the more important buildings. Places that PCs would need or want to go. I'm kind of coming up blank beyond what I have already.

Background wise, this town (<2500 inhabitants including the two villages) is the center and home base for the PCs through the heroic tier. The town lies on a major river about 2 miles upstream from a mile high waterfall. The town was once a major trade hub for a realm that has faded in power. It is ruled by the descendent of the last appointed Lord Mayor and this title is still in use. A town council serves as advisors to the mayor and a town guard of about 50 under a Captain defends the town and the two villages. The town has a stout stone wall built in the old days for additional protection. Two halfling clans work the river trade and also portage goods down a long and dangerous trail to be carried down river beyond the waterfall. Basically it is a self sufficient community with a farming supplier in one village, fishing on the river, and additional food and timber from the other vilage's hunters/lumbermen. Trade is limited to a few daring merchants and the halflings and it may be several months. The town has a minimal criminal element due to its small size, but there are independents and one actual criminal gang. Jobs can be hard to come by as there is an apprentice system in place and not every young man or woman gets selected. Some end up leaving, while other take up adventuring, if they can handle it.

Essentially, the town is self sufficent and relatively safe, though they have suffered raids by various creatures and humanoids. PCs play an important role as merchants, town leaders, the guard captain, and other seek them out to solve the problems that crop up around the area.

So what important locations am I missing in the town itself. Housing of various kinds is covered and the market square will have shops for most goods in the new PH. I'm adding a graveyard outside the town. That was a great idea. Any other ideas?
Shadow Network DM
A mine
It could be either abandoned or not. It all depends on whether the blacksmith gets his materials from trade or not. Also, if there is a mine, it gives some plot hooks as something buried deep may get awoken, people may disappear or they can run into some underground race that feels that the mine is their sacred area, even though they have no use for the material. This could lead the party to either slaughtering them or forging an alliance with them.

The mansion of a Affluent merchant
Basically an outsider that moved to the town, lots of money and may hire the pc's from time to time. Nobody really knows who he is or what he does. Is he a villain or is he just a recluse? Once again, plot options is key.

A small keep/stronghold of visiting nation

possibly someone with a slight antagonistic to the party or town, but could be dwarves, eladrin or rival nation/town. Basically it would be like a consulate building, considered foreign soil. The nice thing about this is the pc's can't barge in without starting a war between the towns, it gives a link/plot points to another nation that, like I said, may be antagonistic towards them. Plots include trying to expose the plot to the current mayor/leader of the town guard so he can officially arrest them, without starting a war.
Tax collectors. All but the smallest of towns will have somebody assigned to this job. They will be well off and throughly hated, no matter how honest they might be. And very few where what we would call honest.

In smaller towns, you would probably find different sorts of collectors in smaller towns. Something like resource collectors. Be it grain for emergency usage by the whole town or just community labor to fix a neighbor's fence. Smaller towns tend to support each other more (even today) so I imagine in a world where there are literal monsters as well as metaphoric ones that smaller communities would be a lot more close knit. I also would expect every home to have a wood chopping axe and/or pig sticker (long spear) ready to pick up at the first sign of trouble.
I don't think you need a lot more. The short term memory can hold about nine items when streched. Really when a DM starts reading off more then five places I might want to go in a town, I'm pretty likely to yell out "The second one."

Plus, you want to be able to flesh out these locations. Each one should have a sound, a smell, even a taste.

Less is more, at least in the beginning. After they get bored with the initial stuff then you can always say, "Didn't I mention that wealthy merchants mansion?"
Defensive Fortifications(inner keep/fortress, walls etc)? - If it doesn't have any why not?(I am not asking personally, make sure there is a reason for it or your players will be ????)

Food Storage Buildings (Most towns would have a place where food(indeed that is how some taxes may be levied)would be stored).
Consider what groups of sapient monsters live near the area (orcs, goblins, etc) and what their interaction with the village is. Obviously raiding and pillaging...but what if that were to change? If three days after the town is sacked by the Greytusk orc tribe...a messenger from that tribe comes to the PC's with an offer of truce. What's the tribe's angle, and can the players convince the Lord and his underlings to accept a truce with "savages"?
A quarry: For stone and gems, also likely home to the dwarven population. Clay would also be taken out for pottery.

A potter's.

An herbalist or apothecary.
A Feast Hall/Adventurer's Hall

Basically a place where the adventurer's meet, share their tales, and/or record them for posterity, whether that be carving them into the wall, or recording them in one of the many volumes of books in shelves along the wall. Basically a library of past exploits. Huge cultural significance, and a place where children gather to learn about the past adventures and heroes. Gives a meeting place for the party to start together, and a lasting legacy if they manage to do something truly exciting (which is why the players are playing the game after all)
If you can, combine structures in smaller towns. Is the temple also the town hall? Is the local inn also a farm house? Is the "graveyard" just open farmland? The more ridiculous the combination the more memorable the town will be.
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If you can, combine structures in smaller towns. Is the temple also the town hall? Is the local inn also a farm house? Is the "graveyard" just open farmland? The more ridiculous the combination the more memorable the town will be.

A good idea, but it's best not to overdo it. Ridiculous can be memorable, but you don't want to strain credulity too much. For example, there had better be a very good reason for the worshipers of Pelor to meet in the tannery, unless you want to run a campaign in which wise players are never without their towels.
There are also other things that make stuff memorable. For instance, lets say that this town has a lot of small gods, as well as each person who believes they have a personal god. People have compounds with multiple separate huts, a shrine, and livestock pens instead of houses, the staple crop is yams, and there is a rich folklore about how some animals got traits, such as turtles, with their shell that isn't smooth. Then add in how pythons are revered or something. All of this came from 1 book(Things Fall Apart), and, unless the players have read it, nobody is going to recognize anything. Although admittedly I read a lot more than any of my players, which is why I can pull this sort of stuff off.