To help illistrate my question I made the quick above scenario on roll20 and print screened it. In this example our player character is the mighty kobold archer hero in the top left of the screen. He has somehow found his way into a room and is behind a pillar with three angry dwarves.
The scenario I'm always finding my players asking me is if they can stay hidden behind that pillar/wall and simply aim around it to let off an attack without moving out of the square. I have always said sure. It makes sense to me as a person that an archer should be able to just lean around a corner, let off an arrow, and lean back without standing in the open picking his nose after letting off his arrows. This has of course led to situations where archers would sit on ether end of a room never moving because neither one wanted to give away their total concealment bonus from the pillar/wall. So after it happening enough times I thought I would try looking into the offical ruling on this kind of thing and I couldn't find anything.
This has nothing to do with stealth checks or anything of the sort, I'm just wondering if they can lean around a corner as a free action, let off their attack and end their turn in the same place. Or is the line of sight being blocked forcing them to move out into the open and then ending their turn there after they attack?
If he is allowed to stay behind the cover, then could the other archer ready his action so that the next time the Kobold archer leaned out to attack he got hit in the face?
The second scenario is like this. Our mighty Kobold archer hero is ducking behind waist high cover. Like above, can he simply lean over, let off a volley of arrows, and then duck back down into cover? Or would he need to use a move action to stand up, take an attack, then he would need a second move action to go prone again behind the cover? I find this one comes up in situations where people are imagining like when a bar fight breaks out in a cowboy movie and someone flips over a table and starts shooting their guns while staying behind the cover of the flipped table.
So that's my questions. Hope it makes sense, and thanks in advance.