Immediate Interrupts and opportunity actions

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So i continue to ask GM after GM and they all have different answers. I also tried looking it up here and there were hundreds of pages in the simple questions thread and couldnt stomach looking continueslly. So heres a few questions.

An ability says when attacked deal X damage. When does this happen? Attacked is vary vague, does that mean when i say you are my target and attacking? An example is Chaotic Defense.

An ability says when hit deal X damage. When does this happen? Is hit before or after damage?  An example would be Tiefling Power.

How does the fighters Mark Immediate Interrupt play into this? As well as the Knights Opportunity action.

Can you use both an Opportunity Action and Immediate Interrupt during the same Round or Turn? 

Please list any data you can provide as well to back up any claims so i can end these questions once and for all to any GMs i talk to in the Future. Thank you for any help you can offer.
From the online compendium, which I think just pastes from the Rules Compendium:


Immediate Action

There are two kinds of immediate actions: interrupts and reactions. The following rules govern both kinds of immediate action.

Trigger: Each immediate action—usually a power—defines its trigger. The one type of immediate action that every creature can take is a readied action (see “Ready an Action”.

Someone Else’s Turn: A creature cannot take an immediate action on its own turn. The action interrupts some event on another creature’s turn or responds to that event.

Once per Round: A creature can take only one immediate action per round, either an immediate interrupt or an immediate reaction. Therefore, if a creature takes an immediate action, it can’t take another one until the start of its next turn.

Interrupts: An immediate interrupt jumps in when its trigger occurs, taking place before the trigger finishes. If an interrupt invalidates a triggering action, the triggering action is lost.
    Example: An enemy makes a melee attack against Keira the rogue, but Keira uses a power that lets her shift away as an immediate interrupt. If the enemy can no longer reach her, its attack action is lost. Similarly, Albanon the wizard might use shield in response to being hit and turn that hit into a miss, or Keira might use the immediate interrupt heroic escape to evade an enemy’s attack before it can deal damage.

Reactions: An immediate reaction lets a creature act in response to a trigger. The triggering action or event occurs and is completely resolved before the reaction takes place.
    An immediate reaction waits for its trigger to finish, not necessarily for the action that contains the trigger to finish.
    Example: An elder dragon’s claw attack power is a standard action that allows two attack rolls against the same target. The dragon faces Fargrim the fighter, who has an immediate reaction (veteran gambit) that is triggered by being hit with a melee attack. If the dragon uses claw and hits Fargrim with the first attack roll, he can use veteran gambit in response to that hit. In that case, the immediate reaction waits for that hit to be resolved, but does not wait for the entire power to be resolved.

Likewise, an immediate reaction can interrupt movement. Here’s how: If a creature triggers an immediate reaction while moving (by coming into range, for instance), the reaction can take place before the creature finishes moving, but after it has moved at least 1 square. In other words, an immediate reaction can be in response to a square of movement, rather than to an entire move action.

If an effect has a trigger but is neither an immediate action nor an opportunity action, assume that it behaves like an immediate reaction, waiting for its trigger to completely resolve. However, ignore this guideline when the effect has to interrupt its trigger to function. For instance, if a triggered power allows an adventurer to use a free action to reroll an attack roll, with the hope of turning a miss into a hit, the power must interrupt the trigger (“You miss with an attack”) to function; otherwise the attack would be resolved as a miss.


Published in Player's Handbook, page(s) 268, Rules Compendium, page(s) 195.


Opportunity Actions

An opportunity action is similar to an immediate interrupt, but it can be taken once per turn, rather than once per round.

Trigger: Each opportunity action—usually a power—defines its trigger. The one type of opportunity action that every creature can take is an opportunity attack.

Someone Else’s Turn: A creature cannot take an opportunity action on its own turn. The action interrupts some event on another creature’s turn.

Once per Turn: A creature can take no more than one opportunity action per turn (but it can take one on each other creature’s turn).

Interrupt: Just like an immediate interrupt, an opportunity action interrupts its trigger, taking place before the trigger finishes.


Published in Player's Handbook, page(s) 268, Rules Compendium, page(s) 196. 


 



These rules answer your question about Chaotic Defense too (not sure what "Tiefling Power" is), which I will retype for your convenience: if an action has a trigger but is neither an immediate action nor an opportunity action, assume that it behaves like an immediate reaction, waiting for its trigger to completely resolve.

Also implicit in these rules is the fact that immediate and opportunity actions do not share the same action economy, so yes you can take both on the same turn. 
Ok so if i understand this correct, Immediate interrupt is always before the trigger, so a fighter will attack and maybe kill before the target does damage to an ally. But an immediate reaction is always after the trigger and if it doesnt state if its either its a reaction and will happen after the trigger as well. And oppurtunity actions are immediate interrupts but can be used each turn instead of each round.
An immediate interrupt resolves before the trigger resolves.  In the case of Combat Challenge, this means as soon as a marked enemy targets an ally with an attack that does not include the fighter, the Combat Challenge MBA is triggered and resolves before the enemy's attack resolves.  Note that this may mean that the enemy's attack becomes invalidated before it resolves, such as if the fighter kills the enemy with the combat challenge or moves the enemy such that its original target is now out of range.  Opportunity attacks function like immediate interrupts.

An immediate reaction resolves after the triggering action fully resolves.  So, if you were to have a power that allowed you to melee attack something that attacked you as a reaction but the enemy's attack moved you such that the enemy was no longer in your melee reach after its attack resolved, you couldn't use the power.
The exact wording of the trigger on an Immediate Interrupt power is important.

If the trigger says "you are targeted by an attack" or "an ally is targeted by an attack" or something to that effect, then the immediate interrupt can negate the entire attack.  The action and power are still used up, but the attacker might no longer be able to continue the attack because they are dead or out of range.

If the trigger says "you/ally are hit by an attack" or "hit or missed by an attack" or "damaged" by an attack, then the hit, miss or damage still occurs, but after the entire interrupt action is resolved.  An example of this might be something like. 
    Interrupt
    Trigger: You take damage that reduces your HP to 0 or below
    Effect: You teleport 5 squares and can spend a healing surge

  So first you take some damage that would put you below 0 thereby triggering the interrupt before your HP actually goes to 0.
  The interrupt teleports you 5 squares. You spend a healing surge and regain the appropriate number of hit points, and then you still take the damage which triggered the action. This is because the teleport does not invalidate the taking of the damage.
  If the Trigger was instead "You are targeted by an attack" then the teleport would prevent you from targeted as long as you teleported out of the range of the power.


> And oppurtunity actions are immediate interrupts

Opportunity Actions function similarly to Immediate Interrupts, but they aren't the same thing and a modifier or condition that affects one does not affect the other unless it explicitly says so.

Free actions (and 'no action' effects) are also a bit of an oddball in that they normally function like reactions, but if they would need to function like interrupts in order to work, they function like interrupts instead. This doesn't come up very often, but it's something to be aware of.

Likewise, due to errata and/or inappropriate initial design, there are a few powers out there that wouldn't technically work at all as written, chiefly ones designated as immediate reactions that wouldn't actually do anything if they didn't apply until after the attack resolved. These need to be adjudicated on a case by case basis, but fortunately they're relatively rare.
^Also known as "Dazing Rebuke Syndrome." And only triggered free/no actions resolve as reactions unless they must resolve as interrupts in order to function. Nit picky details.

@OP: Wording of the exact game element matters. If you want a specific answer, post the specific element you're working with.