Simple attack bonus and damage questions

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I'm new to D&D 4e and I have a few questions about calculating attack bonuses and damages

1. On the 4e character sheet, is there any difference between the Attack Workspace / Damage Workspace and the Standard Attacks section? Do different weapons/abilities go in there or are the workspaces just more detailed places to calculate the attack and damage values that you plug into the Standard Attacks section?

2. My wizard has a +1 magic staff. Does this give him +1 to attack and damage rolls for his spells (like freezing burst)?

3. We have a rogue in our group and we've seen a few things about dexterity-based melee dagger attacks for him. But I can't find that in the core books. Is this something that is from some other book or am I just overlooking it in the core books?

Thanks!
1)  Not really.  Don't sweat the details of the blocks on the character sheets, they're more for convenience than anything else.  Learn how they're determined, and go from there.

2)  Yup.  Magic implements apply an enhancement bonus to attack and damage rolls with attacks with the Implement keyword, which is all of your Wizard's spells.  Special case:  that staff is also a weapon, and so it would also apply an enhancement bonus to attack and damage rolls with attacks with the Weapon keyword, such as Melee Basic Attack.

3)  Dex-based attacks are contained in the Rogue section of the Classes chapter.  Nearly all Rogue powers involve Dexterity attacks - much like how your Wizard uses his powers that attack with Int, your rogue uses his powers that attack with Dex.  What you're overlooking is that all classes are defined by their power lists in 4e, including the martial classes, rather than by their basic attacks.  Melee Basic Attack will be the big thing that will still use Strength for the Rogue (and everyone else, unless they have some way of changing it, which rogues don't have access to).  But MBA is a rather situational power in 4e, rather than the only way to attack that it was in prior editions.
D&D Next = D&D: Quantum Edition
Thanks! That's extremely helpful.

Can I bug you with one more clarification regarding dex-based attacks? The rogue has the Sly Flourish power which says its damage is 1[W] + Dex modifier + Cha modifier. If the dagger attack is already dex-based, does this mean that the only difference Sly Flourish gives is that we add the Cha modifier (since the Dex modifier is already added for the dex-based attack)?
Functionally, yes.  That extra Cha mod is a hefty chunk of damage, which is the point of the power.

But what's more important to note is that the pre-4e way of always adding in an attack damage modifier (either str or dex usually) does not exist in 4e.  The reason a typical dex-based attack adds dex to damage is because the power says it adds dex to damage, in the +Dex modifier part of the Hit line (such as is the case in Sly Flourish).

The Rogue at-will power Gloaming Cut, from the Martial Power 2, has a Hit line of merely 1[W] damage.  Despite being a Dexterity attack, you do not add Dex to damage with this power, because the damage entry doesn't say to.  The intent behind it is that it trades the damage for other effects.

The most important part about calculating damage in 4e is to break away from the idea that there is a general formula.  Each attack has its own damage calculation, and that is included in the power.  It could be the standard dX+mod you're used to, or it could be just the dice, or even just the mod and no dice at all. 

Bottom line:   Go to the individual power itself, and do what it says.
D&D Next = D&D: Quantum Edition
Thank you! That clears things up perfectly.