Instants and "The stack"

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My buddy and I never understood how the stack works with instants like lightning bolt and primal bellow.

Let's say I have a 2/2 out.  I believe if he casts lightning bolt on him, I can "counter" it by playing primal bellow, allowing the 2/2 to become hexproof and thereby making the lightning bolt have an illegal target and have to go to his graveyard.

But let's say I have a 2/2 and I attack with him.  He declares a blocker that is 4/4.  I respond before combat damage is dealt by playing primal bellow and kicking it so that my 2/2 becomes a 6/6.  Can he now respond by casting lightning bolt on my 2/2, killing it before primal bellow has a chance to make it a 6/6 hexproof?

Does the second instant cast have priority over the first one?  Lightning bolt just countered primal bellow, but in the first instance primal bellow countered lightning bolt?

Faster is better. Usually..

the stack operates as "last in, first out"
think of it as a stack of plates, every spell you add gets added on top, when something resolves you remove the top plate, until the stack is empty

so your scenarios are basically correct (except that you probably didn't mean Primal Bellow but Vines of Vastwood)
proud member of the 2011 community team
Do you mean Vines of Vastwood and not Primal Bellows?
As always, enigma saves the day.  You broke your previous record of answering my question in 45 seconds.  Are you human, or some sort of magic question fairy/sprite who lives behind my computer?


edit-Oh and yes, vines of vastwood!  Thanks.

Faster is better. Usually..

I'm the first AI that passed the Turing test
proud member of the 2011 community team
You are a slow learner...

or already insane


If I steal a hundred dollar from a loot of one thousand, people might notice;

If I steal a hundred dollar from a loot of one million, I might get away with it;

If I wish to steal even more and still go unnoticed, I need to make the loot bigger.

 

Now you know why taxes always go up.

 

Looting: ''the plundering of public assets by corrupt or greedy authorities'' (Wikipedia)