Spare From Evil

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So the card Spare From Evil says that creatures you own gain protection from non human creatures. Does this mean that if I use this spell when I attack that my opponent can't block with non human creatures?
Correct.  Protection from {foo} means, in part, that it can't be blocked by {foo} creatures.

Protection does four (six) things, abbreviated D.E.B.T.  If a player or permanent has protectinon from {bar}, then:

D - All Damage that would be dealt to it by {bar} sources is prevented.
E - It can't be Enchanted (or equipped or fortified) by {bar} auras (or equipments or fortifications).
B - When attacking, it can't be Blocked by {bar} creatures, and
T - It can't be the Target of any {bar} spells or abilities from {bar} sources.

Here is the official rule for protection (sblocked for size):

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702.15. Protection

702.15a Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." This quality is usually a color (as in "protection from black") but can be any characteristic value. If the quality happens to be a card name, it is treated as such only if the protection ability specifies that the quality is a name. If the quality is a card type, subtype, or supertype, the ability applies to sources that are permanents with that card type, subtype, or supertype and to any sources not on the battlefield that are of that card type, subtype, or supertype. This is an exception to rule 109.2.

702.15b A permanent or player with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality.

702.15c A permanent or player with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based action. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

702.15d A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent as a state-based action, but remain on the battlefield. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

702.15e Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent or player with protection is prevented.

702.15f Attacking creatures with protection can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

702.15g "Protection from [quality A] and from [quality B]" is shorthand for "protection from [quality A]" and "protection from [quality B]"; it behaves as two separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B].

702.15h "Protection from all [characteristic]" is shorthand for "protection from [quality A]," "protection from [quality B]," and so on for each possible quality the listed characteristic could have; it behaves as multiple separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B], [quality C], and so on.

702.15i "Protection from everything" is a variant of the protection ability. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object's characteristic values. Such a permanent can't be targeted by spells or abilities, enchanted by Auras, equipped by Equipment, fortified by Fortifications, or blocked by creatures, and all damage that would be dealt to it is prevented.

702.15j Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant.



So Spare from Evil's target gains protection from "non-human creatures."  That means it can't be blocked by "non-human creatures" creatures.
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Yes. And any abilities of non-human creatures won't be able to target or damage them either (say, with fight abilities).
Just for clarification, you would need to cast it before your opponent declares blockers; that is to say, your last opportunity to cast this is at the end of your Declare Attackers step. If your opponent is able to declare blockers, and you cast this at the end of the Declare Blockers step, then your creatures are still considered blocked; they just wont receive damage from non-Human creatures your opponents control (though your attacking creatures will still damage the blockers if able).