Do I know if I'm hidden from a specific enemy?

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Let's say I've made a stealth check to become hidden, do I know whether I've done it successfully (rolling a stealth check higher than an enemy's passive perception)? Previously I thought you didn't have any idea, but looking at some new powers (specifically the Executioner's at-will attack with the garrote) that require you to be hidden from an enemy, I'm not really sure. If you aren't supposed to know you're hidden from the enemy and try to use the power with said requirement, what happens? Your action is wasted?
In some situations I delay even allowing the skill check until the effects of using Stealth become apparent or critical. Less so in combat.

I don't think RAW says anything explicit about when effects of skill check results are made apparrent. Using Stealth, or any other skill where the roll is about preparing for something that might happen later, sometimes common sense or drama suggest you don't know until the acid test that comes later.

When it's about becoming Hidden during a fight though, there are a lot of things that can alter the game results - a Rogue is usually keen to know which enemies they have combat advantage against, and it makes a Cunning Sneak much harder to play if you don't know until you commit to an attack. In addition, the Hidden condition is one of the hardest rule quagmires in 4E - it reminds me of v3.5 Grapple!

So it is easier (and probably fairer/balanced) to declare which enemies have had their passive perception met or exceeded at the point where the character attempts to become Hidden.
While the section on opposed checks doesn't explicitly state that you know who wins such a contest, the designers have said that the game was written under the assumption that you have all the relevant mechanical information available when you choose to use a power.  "Gotchas" are out of vogue in 4e.

That said, this is really like the question earlier this week about the shield power, in that some DM's still choose to obscure certain mechanical information necessary to make the decision to use a power.  And that makes most players sad.

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I'd say yes.  There are mechanical effects that rely on you knowing that you are successfully Hidden from something, so you need to know when you are in order for them to function.  Shadowdancer's Gloves are the key thing from my point of view - how do you know whether to roll that extra d6 if you don't know whether you're Hidden or not?
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Some powers require for you to be hidden from the target before you can even use the power (such as the Executioner's Garrote Strangle power.)  In the case of using such a power, I'd say just ask the DM when you get ready to use it.  Otherwise, always assume the worst.

Of course, some DMs will just tell you when you make your Stealth roll that you are hidden from this enemy and this enemy, but not that one over there. 
I agree there is no RAW answer, but I think in-combat you should really know or at least have a sense, since hidden no longer means "totally undetectable." If you crouch behind a rock so you can sneak attack an enemy when he comes around the corner, I think you would have a sense of how much of a drop you have on the guy based on how he moves. Less so for unintelligent creatures like zombies, but often enough that I wouldn't hide the info from a player if he asked even if I don't necessarily announce it when he makes the check.

Out of combat, sounds like an insight check to me. 
I would also go with an Insight check out of combat (opposed by their bluff if they're trying to hide the fact that they can see you), and just tell you in combat.  It seems to fit the general intent of the rules the best to me.
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Let's say I've made a stealth check to become hidden, do I know whether I've done it successfully (rolling a stealth check higher than an enemy's passive perception)?

I agree with the others that you should know this (unless maybe the perceiver is purposefully making a bluff check).

Knowledge of whether you are hidden and/or have Combat Advantage seems assumed by the designers (indeed, such knowledge seems required to use some powers).

I'm playing a rogue right now who needs to be hidden for certain powers or benefits.  So generally I'll roll my stealth and then when it becomes pertinent I'll ask the DM if I am hidden from my target because of such and such, whether it be CA for Sneak Attack, or something in regards to a power.  There's one daily I have that if I'm hidden when I make the attack I don't expend the power.  So that's an important thing to know.  Plus knowing can affect my actions.  If I'm not hidden from an enemy I may just walk around and attack or whatever.  But if I'm hidden I probably instead will look toward doing something to keep hidden from the enemy whether that means attacking and then moving behind something, or whatever.

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