DC skill checks for passives and challenges

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I'm looking through the Dungeon Delve and other sources of adventures, and I'm wondering what to set DCs to. I'm talking about things for Passive Perception and others such as Arcana and Streetwise checks. Where do they get the ideas for this? 10 + half level, and 5 possibly added to it for trained people?

Also, for skill challenges, where do you get the DCs for those? I'm creating a 4 person adventure/campaign (which can be cut down to a 2 man game mainly for my little sister) and I don't want to make the Success DCs too high as I'm dealing with 4 PCs and not 6 like in RPGA.

So far I'm thinking about doing it as percentages, as each number on a D20 is worth 5%. Its easier for me to decide on what the probability is for the PCs that way, and they can just have an easier time rolling for it and adding their modifiers. So what do you guys do to determine DCs for searching the area and for challenges?
Check page 42 of the Dungeon Master's Guide, the section called "Additional Rules".

This will provide a table that says what you should set DCs to depending on what levels your PCs are by splitting the check into three differerent difficulties: easy, moderate, hard.  Don't miss the note on the bottom of the table that says to add 5 to skill checks.

 
Check page 42 of the Dungeon Master's Guide, the section called "Additional Rules".

This will provide a table that says what you should set DCs to depending on what levels your PCs are by splitting the check into three differerent difficulties: easy, moderate, hard.  Don't miss the note on the bottom of the table that says to add 5 to skill checks.

 

Oh this table is a bit nicer. I could always add or subtract as I wish from it. But still, since the passives start at 10, how do I decide if the hidden enemy in a cave requires a passive perception of 15 or 18? Especially since this scales with level. I guess its just a 'best guess' kind of thing, and I'll go by the DC checks and not by what the Passives will be. Thank you.
For the case of a hidden enemy I would use the creature's stealth score + 10 as the DC, or you could roll a d20 and just do a plain stealth check for the creature if you prefer randomness.

For the case of ambushes I always ask for an active perception check instead of relying on the passive checks.  This makes the players feel more involved, and if they roll low then it builds suspense for them even if I was just asking for a perception check when there really wasn't anything there to begin with.
For the case of a hidden enemy I would use the creature's stealth score + 10 as the DC, or you could roll a d20 and just do a plain stealth check for the creature if you prefer randomness.

For the case of ambushes I always ask for an active perception check instead of relying on the passive checks.  This makes the players feel more involved, and if they roll low then it builds suspense for them even if I was just asking for a perception check when there really wasn't anything there to begin with.

Nah it wasn't an ambush thing. There just happens to be a Lvl 3 bat sleeping in a cove in the cave entrance for the Lvl 1 party. He'd attack after two rounds of combat with the rats and fire beetles (as the noise would wake him up).

In the encounter before that I put a Passive Perception of 15 for the Stormclaw Scorpion to show that his claws are crackling with energy, as they are seeing it from a distance. This is to encourage my players (wife and 7 year old sister) to perform other checks to observe their surroundings, and to add flavor as well as give a small reward for investing in Perception. Don't you like it when everyone relies on you for one of your abilities? =P

For an ambush I'd put an easy or moderate passive to show the players that something isn't right. This would then hopefully encourage them to do an active perception check to see the ambush. But thank you for reminding me about ambushes, I'll include that for my last encounter.